DholaviraThe archaeological excavations here have revealed an Indus Valley Civilisation site. It is one of the oldest and largest Indus sites in India. It is located on Khadir Island surrounded on all sides by the Great Rann of Kutch. It is important tourist place in kutch. Its must visit place at kutch.
An ancient city, and locally known as Kotada Timba Prachin Mahanagar Dholavira, is one of the largest and most prominent archaeological sites in India, belonging to the Indus Valley Civilization. It is located on the Khadir bet an island in the Kutch Desert Wildlife Sanctuary, Great Rann of Kutch. The site is surrounded by water in the monsoon season The site was occupied from c.2650 BC, declining slowly after about 2100 BCE. It was briefly abandoned and reoccupied until c.1450 BCE. The site was discovered in 1967-8 by J.P. Joshi and is the fifth largest Harappan site in the Indian subcontinent, and has been under excavation almost continuously since 1990 by Mr. Bist the director of the Archaeological Survey of India. Eight large urban centers have been discovered: Harappa, Mohenjo Daro, Ganeriwala, Rakhigarhi, Kalibangan, Rupar, Dholavira, and Lothal. Dholavira is the only site where the SIGN BOARD – INSCRIPTION of TEN LETTERS found during excavations . Also a large STADIUM re excavated . This city has 16 reservoirs for WATER and most of are inter connect by under ground canals . Also a dam on river!!
A series of excavations by the Archeological proved that Dholavira ranks, with Mohenjo Daro, Harappa, Ganweriwal now all in Pakistan and Rakhigari in India, was one among 5 largest urban centres of the Harappan civilization. Surveys of India uncovered Dholavira as a major exquisitely planned Harappan city. It had monumental structures, aesthetic architecture and an amazing water management system. The ancient ruins of Dholavira spread over about 100 ha nearly half of which is a fortified settlement. Dholavira was laid out on sloping terrain between to storm water channels, Mansar in the north and Mahar in the south. The city was enclosed by a massive wall, designed like a large parallelogram measuring 771 metres in length and 616 metres in width. It is evident that the site of the settlement was picked after good deal of forethought and planning. The gradient, between the higher east and the lower west of Dholavira is 13 metres, which is ideal location for reservoirs. In fact, along the inside of the city's walls is a series of water reservoirs, which almost entirely surround the 3 principal divisions of the city, designated Citadel, the Middle Town and the Lower Town. The citadel which stand majestically on the south side consists of 2 fortified divisions on the east and west named castle and Bailey respectively The Middle town, also fortified, lies to the north and is separated from the citadel by a long and wide ceremonial ground. To the east of Middle town is the lower Town, which is not fortified. Dholavira also enjoys the unique distinction of yielding the word's oldest signboard, comprising an inscription of 10 large sited alphabets of the Harappan script. Plenty of stones were available at Dholavira and were used to make tiles for the water system drains and channels. Pottery pipes were also used. In some places mortar was made of superfine sticky grey clay.